Panchangam

Panchangam is the five relations of yourself (Selftual) to the external Self (Heavenly Bodies)

Panchang  for children at Uni5 Schools.  A student ought to know about the inner and outer environment, especially the sky. In sky five major celestial bodies and their position is taught as Panchang. 

 1. Earth's Position, the observer's point - the calendar day, example today is July  23rd 2017.  

2. Moons' position Tithi or the moon phase - Example today is New moon day. 

3. Sun's Position indirectly is Earth's position in different regions of the space around sun. This is referenced to the group of stars called Constellations.  Around the sky (360 degree) there are twelve groups of stars, a spread of approximately 300 degrees. They are called Zodiac Constellations, Signs (In West) or Rashi (In Sanskrit). They resemble shapes like that of a lion or a lady and named accordingly. 

4. Planets Position. Vara

5. Nakshatra. Like twelve Zodiac Constellations, there is a twenty-seven set of a group of stars called NAKSHATRA at a different trajectory (axis). The degree of one NAKSHATRA varies from 100 to 150.

 Our Solar System i.e. Sun and the whole family are not changing its relative trajectory, but our complete Solar System is moving in the Universe and it is advanced by 20 days with respect to Zodiac Constellations.

Our Earth has five sets relative motions, in the Universe;
1. With respect to our Sun.
2. With respect to other planets. of our Solar system.
3. With respect to Moon of our Earth
4. Due to the motion of Sun (along with his whole family, i.e. all its planets and Moons) in the Universe, measured with respect to the twelve Zodiac Constellations.
5. Due to the motion of Sun (along with his whole family, i.e. all its planets and Moons) in the Universe, with respect to the twenty seven Nakshatras.

 

For astrologers, Panchang means "five attributes" of the day. They are:

Tithi - Tithi is considered as the first phase or portion (Kala) of the 15 phases of the Moon. Or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the Moon and the Sun to increase by 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours. One Tithi equals 12 degree difference between Moon and Sun.

Vara 
Nakshatra - EM of asterism of the day, that is, the stellar mansion in which Moon is located for an observer at the center of the Earth. One Nakshatra equals 13 degrees:20 minutes. There are 27 Nakshatra in 360 degrees.
    Yoga - EM of the angular relationship between Sun and Moon( Apparent Moon plus Apparent Sun). One Yoga equals 13 degrees:20 minutes. There are 27 Yogas in 360 degrees.
    Karana - EM of half of a Tithi. One Karaṇa equals 6 degree difference between Moon and Sun.
    Var weekday the seven weekdays.

 

Other Sources

Extremely good video on moon and sun cycles and thithi

http://astrology.aryabhatt.com/astrology_panchang.asp

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tithi

https://books.google.com/books?id=TGYxXjZXIGwC&pg=PR7&lpg=PR7&dq=Kerala+School+of+Astronomy+and+Mathematics+saturn+monday+tuesday&source=bl&ots=41LqT-n120&sig=zF-TlRzrkui_OCbdCkcRXT86zhk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnt7W7uKDVAhUE2IMKHWwWBUsQ6AEIPzAH#v=onepage&q=Kerala%20School%20of%20Astronomy%20and%20Mathematics%20saturn%20monday%20tuesday&f=false

 

This will be different in different parts of the world because of the observer's positionExample in KirbatiIsland  on a July 24th Friday, India  will be July 23rd Thursday afternoon and Samoa(American) will be 22nd Wednesday night.

 

Kerala panchang

http://indian-observer.blogspot.com/2013/08/zodiac-constellations-sign-rashi.html